The Haitian Revolution – The Slave Society – Extra History – #1


Saint-Domingue, 1791. Only a year before,
the man had been a warrior in the Congo. Captured by his enemies, he was sold into slavery, crammed into a festering ship’s hold. More than one out of every seven captives taken died before they ever saw western shores. But he’s one of the “lucky” ones. He at last makes it to the plantation
where he will likely die. He learned this from one of the few
enslaved men who speaks his language. They will be raising sugarcane,
a dangerous and exhausting task with a harvest season lasting from December to July. Half the new arrivals will die of disease
before the year is out, and if they try to escape, they face punishments ranging
from whipping to amputation. The men who harvest the cane have cuts all over their bodies, the women who process it are missing arms from the crushing machines, or have massive burns from the boiling vats of sugar. The death rates are so high, his guide says, plantation owners don’t bother
providing food or clothing. They just buy more enslaved people when the current group is worked to death. But not for much longer, he says. it is good [that] this new arrival is a warrior, because they have use for warriors. There’s going to be a revolution. “Birth of the People” by Demetori The Haitian Revolution is a unique event,
both an offshoot of the French Revolution, and an anti-colonial struggle. Haiti would become the second American nation to successfully win independence. And it remains, to this day, history’s only example of enslaved people successfully rising up against their oppressors, an act that stunned the world and reshuffled the political order. From inspiring movements in other colonies, to forcing Napoleon to sell Louisiana to the United States, its effect would be profound. But there is no good ending for the people that fought and died to create the world’s first government led by liberated slaves. For the example of Haiti’s revolution,
including the violence of its rising, caused other nations to do everything they could to weaken the young government: Policies that, 200 years later, still impact Haiti and contribute to its current difficulties. But the roots of that instability were there
from the beginning. Because the economy of the French colony of
Saint-Domingue, later known as Haiti, was largely devoted to a single plant.
In Saint-Domingue, sugar was king. French settlers arrived on the island of Hispaniola via Caribbean piracy. And though the island had been Columbus’s first landing place in the Americas, after a century as a Spanish colony, it was neglected and sparsely populated. By 1625, French pirates had begun setting up agricultural settlements on the western side, importing large numbers of African slaves. By 1697, the division was official, splitting Hispaniola into the French Saint-Domingue in the West, and the Spanish Santa Domingo in the east. And within 50 years, Saint-Domingue was a crucial part of the Atlantic trade, because Saint-Domingue, as it turned out, was the ideal place to grow three products that Europe and its North American colonies couldn’t get enough of. The first was indigo, a plant that produced a rich blue dye; Next was coffee, the beverage of choice during the Enlightenment; but mostly, it was sugar, the substance Europeans couldn’t get enough of, whether raw or converted to Rum and the tiny colony of Saint-Domingue produced about half of the coffee and sugar consumed in Europe. It was by far the wealthiest colony in the Caribbean, if not the world, and the jewel of France’s imperial crown. In fact, one in every 25 Frenchmen had a job supported by the Saint-Domingue trade. But there was trouble underneath the surface of this economic power house. Because Saint-Domingue was a slave society,
a place that didn’t just have slavery but was structured entirely around the bloody institution. And the different classes of people living in the colony all had different and overlapping grievances that would all explode once the burning fuse of revolution moved from America to France to the island itself. So when the revolution exploded in Saint-Domingue, it was not a single revolt, but multiple different risings focused on different issues, as much a civil war as a popular uprising. Now, this gets really complicated and nuanced fast, but to understand what’s going to happen, we have to give you a rundown of how society on Saint-Domingue stood in the 1780s, right as revolution was starting to brew in Paris. We’re going to look at three parts of Saint-Domingue’s population: the whites, the free people of color, and the enslaved. The white plantation owners, known as the Big Whites, lived in huge estates. The City of Le Cap in the colonies north looked a little like Paris, with street grids and a massive theater. Their sons and daughters, dressed in the most current fashions, and read newspapers brought daily from Paris. In fact, many of these “Big Whites” didn’t even live in Saint-Domingue, preferring rather to hold court in huge estates in France, while others managed their land and finances. Though rich, the Big Whites chafed under French economic policies, which forbade them from diversifying the local economy or selling their product to any place but France, even though British Barbados and America wanted their goods. And as the American colonies rose up, these Big Whites found themselves identifying with revolutionary plantation owners like Washington and Jefferson, and began to wonder if they too could win more economic freedom with a similar Declaration of Independence. Below these “Big Whites” were these so-called “Little Whites”, Frenchmen who arrived trying to make enough money so that they could go home rich. They were the bookkeepers, the plantation overseers, or shopkeepers. They, in other words, fulfilled any job that did not require physical labor. These Little Whites resented the big whites
for their money and power, looked down on the enslaved as inferior, and considered the colonies free people of color, often richer and better educated, as economic rivals. The Free People of Color require a bit of explanation, as they were a fairly unique class to the Caribbean. In the early days of the colony, men outnumbered women heavily, and there were few female colonists. This led to a large number of French men having coerced, or violently forced, relations with female slaves. In some cases these French men freed and married the women or freed the resulting children. Over time, this created a class of people known as the Free People of Color, who became a distinct economic force. You see, under the laws of France, the Free People of Color were not equal. They couldn’t vote, for instance. But they could hold land and inherit property. And unlike the Little Whites, who were always taking their earnings back to France, the Free People of Color stayed put, and built multi-generational fortunes. As a result, many prospered, often coming to own plantations with their own enslaved workforce. Indeed, new arrivals to the colony from France often crossed the color line to marry into this group, due to their wealth and local connections. Like the Big Whites, they dressed in French fashion, or at least they did, until a series of racist apartheid laws championed by the Little Whites and sweeping in after an aborted 1758 slave revolt, came into force. These new laws barred them from public office, disallowed wearing European-style clothes, and restricted where they could live. Official documents had to indicate that they were colored, since many of these people of color might only have one black grandparent, and could easily pass for white. And a bizarre charts tract blood-quantum to figure out exactly how black someone was. With a fairer system still within living memory, the three people of color would see the French Revolution as an opportunity to gain legal equality as citizens, though don’t mistake that for abolitionism. They often saw themselves as separate from the recently arrived enslaved, and opposed the idea of emancipation. And then there were the enslaved,
a group that outnumbered all the other groups ten to one, and a population that died so fast, due to disease, mistreatment, and the tortures of forced labour, that a third of all enslaved people kidnapped from Africa went to Saint-Domingue. Recently arrived from different areas, they spoke a common French Creole, and developed voodoo, a system of religious beliefs that melded African religious elements with Catholicism. And while any open resistance was put down with violent punishments, including being thrown into boiling sugar, eaten alive by insects, or blown up with gunpowder, the enslaved developed other methods of economic sabotage. In some cases, they might go on strike, disappearing until a particularly cruel overseer was fired, and groups of escaped slaves, known as Maroons, lived in the mountains, raiding plantations for supplies and carrying out guerrilla warfare. But there were also more everyday forms of resistance: Slow work, faking illness, or pretending not to understand tasks, tactics that proved so effective that the colony’s white population were thoroughly convinced that the enslaved were stupid and lazy, an attitude that caused them to fatally underestimate the threat when the revolution came, and the battered enslaved turned their machetes to a different use. Because while there were divisions in class, even among the enslaved, they did have a unifying cause. They wanted freedom and to put the plantations to the torch. Special thanks to our Educational-Tier patrons! (Listed above!) Music: Créte-à-Pierrot by Tiffany Roman

100 Comments

  1. Ender[REDACTED] said:

    2:18 Very shneaky Papeeroos.

    January 23, 2020
    Reply
  2. jade250 said:

    where is part 2

    January 23, 2020
    Reply
  3. Argacyan said:

    Fun trivia: the haitian revolution was a thorn in the side of america when it itself became an empire, so haiti was invaded multiple times by american marines last time being I think it was 2008 or 09.

    January 23, 2020
    Reply
  4. FlameRunner Reviews said:

    Wish we we're taught this in school. What little I already knew about this came from Assassin's Creed Freedom Cry.

    January 23, 2020
    Reply
  5. Toastte said:

    2:19
    Bonetrousle Intensifies

    January 23, 2020
    Reply
  6. Commander Appo said:

    Break the chains!

    January 23, 2020
    Reply
  7. Lenz said:

    Yeah Haitian’s represent. I-E-T.

    January 23, 2020
    Reply
  8. Jan-Niklas Maurer said:

    make a Atatürk video of his life he is the founder of modern day Turkey

    January 24, 2020
    Reply
  9. thebeastgamer Harris said:

    I dont know why but this is my favorite episode

    January 24, 2020
    Reply
  10. Youtube Channel said:

    “Why didn’t we think of this before?”

    January 24, 2020
    Reply
  11. Sebas said:

    Great work man. But man you didn't even try to pronounce any of these words. Which I dont't get cuz all you gotta do is add a french accent to the words.

    January 24, 2020
    Reply
  12. Raphael alexandre yensen said:

    There are other groups of enslaved people who had a successful uprising, the Mamalukes, and Jannisaries both overthrew their governments, The Mamalukes took direct control. The Jannisaries tended to merely replace the head of state, though Arabian and Turkish slavery also had very different structures in comparison to its new world counterpart, that said many of the slaves were treated badly as well.

    January 24, 2020
    Reply
  13. Allan Sagahon said:

    7:36 weren't a great number of them sold by Africans to the colonial powers.

    January 25, 2020
    Reply
  14. Mike Trot said:

    Freedom is always worth no matter what. No regrets.

    January 25, 2020
    Reply
  15. Mark A. said:

    Research who owned the slave ships

    January 25, 2020
    Reply
  16. E. Gordbort said:

    Reason slavery is bad number 703: if you treat the people that do all your work like shit, your best-case outcome is having shit work and angry workers

    seriously, how was this not common sense? even if you're mega-racist and don't believe in human rights, if you abuse the shit out of a pack of wolves, the wolves are either going to kill you or are going to lie around being useless before they die

    at the very least, if you live in a time where machines don't exist and everyone is too busy dying of polio to work for money, give the unpaid workers decent living conditions and don't force them into it.

    But no, you can't afford to run businesses like this while also giving every slave on the plantation the same lifestyle as the average minimum-wage workhand, so this was the only solution they could come up with for having all that sugar. you know, a non-essential good whose only useful quality to whatever nation it is sold in is purely economical.

    the day we invented machines that could do all this shit for us without needing hundreds of sad, angry laborers just to get half the output was the best day for human rights in history.

    January 25, 2020
    Reply
  17. Branimir Branimir said:

    Did anyone see the papyrus head?

    January 25, 2020
    Reply
  18. Daniel Hyson said:

    I came to these comments expecting the worst, but once again I am pleasently surprised at how well people are handling this sensitive topic

    January 25, 2020
    Reply
  19. Familia Wylie said:

    Plz show Dominican revolution

    January 25, 2020
    Reply
  20. twistedyogert said:

    Sugar: Yesterday's petroleum.

    January 25, 2020
    Reply
  21. televisionplayback said:

    Nobody expects the Papyrus pirate ship.

    January 25, 2020
    Reply
  22. määäääääääx said:

    Bridge4!

    January 25, 2020
    Reply
  23. Rogue said:

    I feel so honored to watch this series of my people 🇭🇹🇭🇹

    January 25, 2020
    Reply
  24. Alpha guy Stadt said:

    Even small acts of resistance can effective in their own ways

    January 25, 2020
    Reply
  25. ender Pup said:

    2:17 papyrus flag!

    January 25, 2020
    Reply
  26. I'm a pigeon said:

    2:18
    PAPYRUS!?

    January 25, 2020
    Reply
  27. Name Don't ask said:

    2:16 the flag on the pirate ship is papyrus

    January 25, 2020
    Reply
  28. The Eggy Crusader said:

    2:18 Papyrus Skull Flag!

    January 25, 2020
    Reply
  29. BottledBanana said:

    The existence of the Free People of Color is such a natural inevitability but also such an interesting cultural phenomenon. I imagine every member of that class had an identity crisis of some sort.

    January 26, 2020
    Reply
  30. The Flawless Failure666 said:

    God I’ve been waiting for a Haitian revolution series for sooo long I love what you all are doing at extra credits

    January 26, 2020
    Reply
  31. Lex T said:

    kidnapping:
    The crime of unlawfully seizing and carrying away a person by force or Fraud, or seizing and detaining a person against his or her will with an intent to carry that person away at a later time.

    Slaves were not kidnapped from Africa, they were legally sold. Abducted could work but kidnapping explicitly implies an illegal activity.

    (PS, not all laws are moral and slavery legal or not is awful but extra credits still used the wrong word)

    January 26, 2020
    Reply
  32. fgreger said:

    This is an interesting and scary example of communication failing very hard. Due to good old: Ignorance and hearing what you want to hear infused with greed on both sides.
    People selling the slaves: I don't care what happens, money.
    People buying the slaves: You heard them, it's fine whatever we do, money.
    people who where slaves: life quality dropped from ~3/10 to 0/10

    January 26, 2020
    Reply
  33. Angel Sebastian Palacios Rodriguez said:

    And now haiti……

    January 26, 2020
    Reply
  34. Don Bsweet said:

    Just to clarify, the revolution was not fought with machetes, at the revolution time, the former slaves had a well disciplined and well equipped and powerful army fully battle tested by driving the British and the Spanish out of Saint Dommingue.

    January 26, 2020
    Reply
  35. Don Bsweet said:

    The little white was also called "Blanc mannant". The term is used to today to refer to anyone who is pretending to be be rich.

    January 26, 2020
    Reply
  36. smalltime0 said:

    errr… the Haitian revolution didn't force Napoleon to sell Louisiana, he just knew he couldn't defend it from the British and it would keep the Americans on side.

    January 26, 2020
    Reply
  37. Lord Of Cheese said:

    This video coincides with a lecture I have tomorrow about the Haitian Revolution.

    Fuck yes.

    January 27, 2020
    Reply
  38. joe8075 said:

    I do believe that out of this class of free people of color, John James Audubon was born out of a white and colored marriage then sent to France for his artistic training and schooling.
    His talent was eventually discovered during his early career in New Orleans. Strangely enough he became lifelong friend of James Bowie another early American icon starting 1817 when by pure happenstance they met on the steps of Ste Louis Cathedral.
    Peace.

    January 27, 2020
    Reply
  39. Christopher Justice said:

    In a batter world. America would’ve embraced Haiti as our revolutionary brothers. But alas, the southern elite and their lower class shock troops undermined our principles from the beginning.

    January 27, 2020
    Reply
  40. Jarod Farrant said:

    Viva revolution! 🇭🇹

    January 27, 2020
    Reply
  41. Nathan Wilson said:

    Man, I just can’t imagine running that kind of system on other human beings. Jesus Christ be with you friends.😊

    January 27, 2020
    Reply
  42. Luke Thompson said:

    I am from the Carribean and it's mostly accurate just for some pronunciations. It was a monoculture society and the effects of the revolution left them in a bigger divide than before.

    January 28, 2020
    Reply
  43. Slightly Awkward said:

    What happened to the last narrator?

    January 28, 2020
    Reply
  44. DzarV Drax said:

    1899 on the shores of guarma anyone?

    January 28, 2020
    Reply
  45. Stretop Overmind said:

    – The first time enslaved people beaten their oppressors.

    Excuse you, how about Russians beating both Mongols who were oppressing them and Turks who were enslaving them?

    January 28, 2020
    Reply
  46. Ethic Ethnic said:

    Vodun is not a "African religion", its a specific African religion. A religion practiced by a number of indigenous West African ethnic groups such as the Fon/Dahomey & Ewe etc. Vodun is not Yoruba religion (example: the Orishas), & it's also not the religion of the Igbo people (aka: the Alusi). Vodun=Loa, Yoruba=Orishas & Igbo=Alusi. All three of these religions although having a hierarchy of powerful female & male deities, & human ancestral spirits, are monotheistic.

    January 29, 2020
    Reply
  47. Tom B said:

    Thks, My wife is a descendant of those 'free people of color' and her family still has the same old attitude. Apparently everything I was taught in school about history was simply propaganda. Beside shiny/fancy tech toys, at best civilization is still in Medieval times & too dumb to know (I'm a retired military physicist).
    Black In Latin America (Episode 1) Haiti and The Dominican Republic- The Roots of Division https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dvegxdm35JU

    January 29, 2020
    Reply
  48. Azier18 said:

    3:27 where did I heard those choice words from🤔

    January 29, 2020
    Reply
  49. охотник Томпсона said:

    best Extra Credits music of all time!

    January 30, 2020
    Reply
  50. Sir.BeefSwaggerton said:

    I hope this series brings up the polish soldiers that took up arms with the Haitians it's such an interesting part of history

    January 30, 2020
    Reply
  51. Prabath Kiran said:

    I read the black jacobins by CLR James. People who want to know how the slaves defeated the greatest European expedition ever should read this book.

    January 30, 2020
    Reply
  52. Aaron Pearlmutter said:

    Is anyone else real confused about what they mean by going on strike? 8:02 How would they be able to do that without facing the violent punishments for resistance? And if they could just disappear? like why would they come back? and not just join the guerrillas in the mountains
    If anyone knows somewhere I could get more info please lmk

    January 30, 2020
    Reply
  53. Nip Dip said:

    Ah yes

    Carribian Papyrusy 2:18

    January 31, 2020
    Reply
  54. Siara H said:

    I read about this a few years back, and the Wikipedia pages on various topics related to this are frustratingly spotty in places, or at least were at the time, so this is amazing and helps summarize matters into something highly digestable that'll serve as a good jumping off point. It's super useful, too, and this info is relevant to some historical fantasy fiction I'm writing with a couple of friends. Thanks!

    January 31, 2020
    Reply
  55. Christian Sitzman said:

    2:16 Papyrus pirate flag

    February 1, 2020
    Reply
  56. Nathan van Zanten said:

    Was that… a Papyrus Pirate flag? Nyahaha?

    February 1, 2020
    Reply
  57. D. Val said:

    Where my Zoes at?
    🇭🇹🇭🇹🇭🇹

    February 1, 2020
    Reply
  58. KingCetshwayo said:

    Umm no it’s not the only time enslaved people rose up and won. Look up the Zang Rebellion in Iraq. Blacks literally won territory afterwards. Only blacks have freed themselves from slavery. No other group.

    February 2, 2020
    Reply
  59. Solqueen86 said:

    Little whites be hating

    February 2, 2020
    Reply
  60. Haitian Nationalist said:

    “Off shoot of the French Revolution”. No. It’s a revolution in its own right.

    February 2, 2020
    Reply
  61. legionofyuri said:

    Ah, good old French colonialism.

    February 2, 2020
    Reply
  62. Anthios Day said:

    2:19 is that papyrus i see?

    February 2, 2020
    Reply
  63. Natalie Franklyn said:

    EC:”The Hati revolution was the only successful slave revolution “

    Liberia 🇱🇷: Am I a joke to you

    February 2, 2020
    Reply
  64. Wolfy Playz said:

    Le finger slipped on le dislike

    February 2, 2020
    Reply
  65. Martin Smouter said:

    France takes revolting serious.

    February 2, 2020
    Reply
  66. Upside-Down Smore said:

    2:16 PAPYRUS BOAT PAPYRUS BOAT PAPYRUS BOAT

    February 2, 2020
    Reply
  67. Damn Danly said:

    Haitian we're you at 🇭🇹

    February 4, 2020
    Reply
  68. Junior Colada said:

    Revolution never 100% will be bring a good result…

    February 4, 2020
    Reply
  69. Truth Seeker said:

    Can you do a video on the Gullah wars? Another slave revolution in the Americas

    February 4, 2020
    Reply
  70. Snowjunkie said:

    I'm just gonna say this: You need to learn how to actually speak. There is no cadence to your voice, everything you say sounds exactly the same intonationwise regardless of the context of what you are talking about. Watching the videos with you speaking is a chore rather than a treat. pls either learn how to actually voice act, or find someone else to do the talking. pls

    February 4, 2020
    Reply
  71. Paul Cantave said:

    LETS GOOOOO

    February 7, 2020
    Reply
  72. darkprince56 said:

    Instead of that mouthful, why not just call them "free blacks" ?

    February 7, 2020
    Reply
  73. Brenande Mossita said:

    I'm happy you discussed how Europe and US targeted Haiti and treated them like trash.

    February 7, 2020
    Reply
  74. Peter Geramin said:

    "I've only been asking for 5 years"

    – This Haitian Guy

    February 8, 2020
    Reply
  75. AvaintTF ThePyro said:

    And later it fails to put down a revolution against it in the future

    February 8, 2020
    Reply
  76. Pineapple gameing Lol said:

    2:19 papyrus!

    February 8, 2020
    Reply
  77. bumpdat01 said:

    I will continue support this channel!

    February 8, 2020
    Reply
  78. Eilz Z said:

    What I like abt this channel is how their story telling and illustration are both equally entertaining and flowing seamlessly. More often I listen to the channel while driving, yet I could understand the stories clearly.

    February 9, 2020
    Reply
  79. R K said:

    5:55 Coerced or Forced relationships, but yea they also freed them from slavery. lmao wut

    February 9, 2020
    Reply
  80. Bidmartinlo said:

    Death before slavery!

    February 9, 2020
    Reply
  81. Chewbaccafruit said:

    lol Big Whites

    February 9, 2020
    Reply
  82. The Haniman said:

    why didn't you do this when I was taking a college class on this!!

    February 9, 2020
    Reply
  83. rautamiekka said:

    This series is missing a dedicated playlist. With a huge vid arsenal like this channel has that's crucial.

    February 10, 2020
    Reply
  84. Ettina Kitten said:

    In my Latin American history class in university, we were asked to compare and contrast two Latin American countries for our term paper. I picked Haiti and the Dominican Republic.

    February 10, 2020
    Reply
  85. Brandon Burns said:

    papyrus was on the ship flag.

    February 10, 2020
    Reply
  86. Peter Geramin said:

    For all the people, attributing our Haitian Revolution to simply "part of France" or "another one of France's Revolutions" please stop and finish watching the series.

    You really minimize the importance and impact of the Haitian Revolution. It's called the Haitian Revolution for a reason. We won.

    They were our first enemies and their government still impede Haiti to this day as well as continuing their legacy of neo-colonialism in francophone Africa(CFAFranc). After the Napoleonic Wars they returned and demanded 180 gold Francs later reduced to 90 million. This is the equivalent of over 21 BILLION dollars. For a war we won they wanted reparations for their "property".

    The French Revolution was only revolutionary for the French and highly hypocritical. The "Amies de Noir" were very revolutionary. I will give them credit. They contributed to France temporarily banning slavery.

    This is why Haiti and the Haitian Revolution Are considered the MOST revolutionary. We demanded 2 SIMPLE things: EQUALITY and ABOLITION OF SLAVERY.

    We peace and equality and they made it a race war. Unlike them, we had whites on our side. Thanks to our Polish friends.

    February 11, 2020
    Reply
  87. Ned Aride said:

    So… Basically, Tropico

    February 15, 2020
    Reply
  88. 5HAUUNN3X said:

    Fun Fact Sugar is actually 50% more addicting than cocain 😉

    February 16, 2020
    Reply
  89. Tyrant-Den said:

    Did Les Mis steal that flag 1:23?

    February 16, 2020
    Reply
  90. That One Guy said:

    2:17 anyone else notice the Great Papyrus on the flag on the sailboat?

    February 16, 2020
    Reply
  91. Arius Krieg said:

    Calling it the only successful slave revolt in history is a bit misleading. It's the only one that resulted in the slaves actually taking control of the state, but there are others that have resulted in freedom for the rebels through escaping and fighting off anyone who tried to stop them. Spartacus's revolt is arguably a case of that, as a part of his army did make it to the border and escaped into Gaul and Germania. The ones who were eventually defeated were the ones who turned back south for reasons not fully known, but likely because they were now in it for the loot and had been making out like bandits rampaging the Italian countryside.

    February 16, 2020
    Reply
  92. D1GITΛL CVTS said:

    2:16 Carribbean Papyrusy

    February 16, 2020
    Reply
  93. law mon said:

    Do one about Jamaica pls

    February 16, 2020
    Reply
  94. DCP said:

    any bets they won't even mention the 1804 massacre of French settlers

    February 17, 2020
    Reply
  95. Metro Bytmobile said:

    Thank you for doing this

    February 17, 2020
    Reply
  96. Ryan Sondgeroth said:

    “Yeah let’s give the people we forcibly removed from their home, sold into slavery, and work to death machetes. What could go wrong?

    February 17, 2020
    Reply
  97. Alex Macmillan said:

    Man, slavery and racism are such horrid things 🙁

    February 17, 2020
    Reply
  98. Joe Perez said:

    good

    February 18, 2020
    Reply
  99. Jacob Feldman said:

    Great videos man, im always impressed by your stuff!

    February 18, 2020
    Reply
  100. Arkar Nan Htike said:

    0:43 The women who process it are missing arms from the crushing machine.

    Doodles: got no arms.

    February 18, 2020
    Reply

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