The Evolution of Human Birth

Hey! So, a few weeks ago Bill and Melinda Gates reached out to us about making a collaborative video based on a theme in their annual letter. This is something that they write every year to share their philanthropic goals for the coming months. One of their priorities for 2017 has to do with maternal and infant health. They want to support initiatives that ensure women remain healthy throughout pregnancy and birth and in the first years of their child’s life—we put it in the description so you can go check it out for yourself. The Gates have been a lot of great work to elevate important topics around global health and education and I’m really excited to be working with them on this project, so check it out! So you might remember Dr. Robert Martin, who you’re familiar with from episodes like “Breast Episode Ever” and “Why did King Tut have a flat head?” He’s a biological anthropologist and has spent his career researching various aspects of Hominid evolution. A big part of his work focuses on the physical aspects of human reproduction and childbirth and how trends and practices in childbirth have changed throughout time. They got me thinking of that face that I made in the King Tut video. Before then, I’d never truly realized the logistical constraints of human child birth. I mean you’ve got to navigate this grapefruit sized head and shoulders through an opening of roughly the same size and make a turn to get around the tailbone in the process. When you compare the pelvic size and shape to that of our closest great ape relatives, ours is disproportionately smaller and more obtuse—and that’s because the act of walking permanently upright, known as bipedal locomotion, actually changed the shape of that pelvic opening. This, in addition to human babies having a longer gestation time, overall larger body size, and massive heads, leads to a lot of complications when it comes to human birthing practices. In fact, in a recent blog post, Dr. Martin wrote “astute analysis of brain size and pelvic anatomy and our fossil predecessors have confirmed that birth first began to become challenging when the genus Homo emerged around two million years ago.” This means that women may have
been relying on personal assistants in order to give birth for as long and 2 million years! So I started to wonder how has our inability to give birth easily impacted mortality rates for both mother and child. Save the Children estimates that a million babies die the day they’re born every year. So why does this happen and are things getting any better? Spoiler alert: these things are actually improving and I went to talk to Dr. Martin to get some answers. This is what a baby’s head looks like at birth and that head has to fit through the pelvis. So the baby goes in with his head facing sideways and then when it’s halfway through the pelvis it turns through 90 degrees to point backwards. It all boils down to a difficult passage through the pelvis because of this trade-off between adaptation of the pelvis for upright walking and this big brain. So all of that points to the need for some kind of assistance. We don’t know exactly when, but we can trace this process through the fossil record fairly effectively and my guess is that we started needing midwives about a million years ago, there’s some kind of help.
EG: You mentioned earlier that we have a great record for knowing how, uh, how humans have evolved over time and how the evolution of birthing practices have evolved over time, so you can talk— can you talk a little bit about some of the examples that we have in the fossil record?
RM: So this here is— this is one side of the pelvis of Lucy, the famous Australopithecus from Ethiopia. So if you mirror image the pelvis and put it together, you can work out how big the birth canal was.
EG: Great.
RM: …and we can calculate how big the baby’s head was likely to be. But then, when you get up to Homo erectus, by 1.5 million years ago with early homo, we almost certainly had the beginnings of a difficult birth. They would have had slower births and maybe they already needed midwives at that stage, it’s quite possible. I think midwives have been undervalued. I mean has been a medicalization of birth and a drive towards having births in hospitals. It’s much better for women psychologically, at least, to be working with a midwife than to go into the impersonal environment of a maternity. There was a study in Holland which showed that if you had a midwife in hospital compared to an obstetrician in that same hospital, birth took twice as long with the obstetrician than it did with the midwives. I mean, it’s pretty dramatic evidence to me.
EG: Something like 300,000 women die because of pregnancy-related issues, but most of those are preventable. I mean sometimes you get blockage of the birth canal but a lot of that just has to do an access to basic health care and assistance in the process. It seems pretty logical to think that if you provide more access to healthcare and to nutrition, to decrease the number of children who are dying of malnutrition, then that would be beneficial all around. This is absolutely true. I mean medical science has made huge leaps forward but in industrialized countries we’ve managed to get birth related mortality down, so that we’re talking about a few per hundred thousand, so I mean these are really pretty low levels. But here’s the thing, if you just take industrialized countries where because of hospital services, we’ve managed to reduce mortality and the lowest country on the list for industrialized countries is the United States. How come the richest country in the world has one of the highest levels of mortality around? There was one drastic case which is the state of Texas. In the state of Texas, maternal mortality was actually not rising very much until 2011. And then it doubled.
EG: Wow. RM: It shot up and it stayed at that level ever since. There’s no health-related factor that can explain that and the only explanation I’ve seen is within 2011, a lot of prenatal clinics were closed. And, so I think there is a good possibility that a political decision in the state of Texas has actually doubled the rate of mortality and that stayed.
EG: Wow, so that’s kind of a shocking example of how decreasing the access to healthcare facilities actually exponentially increases the rate of infant mother mortality. Despite those kind of statistics, things are improving globally for, for women and for infant care. I mean especially if you’re looking in the scale of the last hundred years or so, the percentage of children that are dying between ages 0 and 5 had decreased forty percent in the last hundred years. From instances that might look like things might be getting worse but overall things are improving. Oh absolutely, and I, I don’t want to over- exaggerate things over in the United States is last on the [league?] list for industrialized countries which is still pretty low. Medical intervention and monitoring has got the death rate down considerably. It’s quite a bit worse in developing countries and the highest rates are in Africa. Africa has real problems with health provision, I think, and so we can see there the problems you get if you don’t have regular monitoring.
EG: We have the benefit of technology and medical resources that hypothetically could be available to everybody alive today. 122 million children have been able to live thanks to access to healthcare and education. So that, to me, seems like a huge progress. What do you imagine for the future of humanity if everybody could have access to health care, provided that, you know, you have some idea of what our evolutionary trajection [sic] might be.
RM: Yes, the first thing I would say is a key to the improvement you’ve mentioned is prenatal care. That has already reduced the problems enormously and improved the prospects of birth. Unfortunately a lot of people think the easy way out is to have cesarean births because then you don’t have any problem of passing through the pelvis.
EG: Yeah.
RM: That has got out of hand because WHO reckons that the medical reasons you might need to have cesarean every one in ten or one in seven births something like that. In the United States right now one in three births is by cesarean, so it’s, it’s increa—it’s more than tripled in, over the course of 40 years or so. You have full anesthesia for a cesarean and some major operation, and it has all kinds of side- effects. But the example I, I’ve given in my writings is that in bulldogs, dogs with with really wide heads, we’re talking about 85 to 95 percentages cesarean. And if we don’t watch it we’re going to end up like Bulldogs. [laughing]
EG: Wow. Man, I’m just, I’m grateful for mothers everywhere!
[both laughing] This episode of The Brain Scoop is brought to you by Bill and Melinda Gates and the Field Museum in Chicago, Illinois. … it still has brains on it.


  1. HELLOZacha said:

    Because of the birthing and being pregnant I'm never want to have a baby

    February 28, 2017
  2. asailijhijr said:

    6:24 You haven't shown us enough datapoints to say 'exponentially'. 'Doubles' is linear, so unless you have data over months showing an exponential increase, you can't say that.

    March 1, 2017
  3. Secular - Atheist said:

    I like the presenter….hot and brains….pretty rare

    March 1, 2017
  4. Jayyy Zeee said:

    I had to wait until the end to hear about how c-sections may lead to the development of larger human heads. #bighumanheads

    March 2, 2017
  5. Serena Geraghty said:

    Amazing how you got to work with them! Great video!

    March 2, 2017
  6. 𓊈 𝐀𝐬𝐩𝐡𝐨𝐝𝐞𝐥 𓊉 said:

    I'm just gonna get a puppy and call it good.

    March 4, 2017
  7. prairieusa said:

    What about Oriental women giving birth by themselves in rice fields by simply squatting?

    March 4, 2017
  8. Elise Logan said:

    C-sections don't require general anesthesia in all cases. I had a c-section (it was medically necessary – I had to be induced due to another medical condition that endangered the baby, and the labor stalled post-water breakage, so c-section was required). I did NOT have general – instead I had a fairly standard epidural.

    March 5, 2017
  9. Union of Earth Soviet Socialist Republics said:

    Socialism is the solution, Bill and capitalist like him is the problem. Who the fuck needs $70 billion

    March 6, 2017
  10. AndyG94 said:

    Dammit Texas!

    March 6, 2017
  11. Caleb Bell said:

    So many baby skulls

    March 7, 2017
  12. rubymimosa said:

    That was so interesting and real! Emily: I'm trying to make a point advocating better prenatal care
    Dr.: I'm trying to make the point that in some places the medical interventions have gone too far.
    Just made it all the more authentic

    March 8, 2017
  13. 11 Year Old Homstead said:

    It's either they didn't post this right away or Dr Martin doesn't change his calendar

    March 8, 2017
  14. Bobcatethan said:

    sooooooo are we getting one video a month now, I know that these videos sometimes require a lot of research but I'm dying for some cool science stuff.

    March 9, 2017
  15. kez kezooie said:

    I was horrified when I first heard a couple of months ago about the infant mortality rate doubling in Texas, but I didn't know that the US as a whole had the worst infant mortality rate of developed countries.
    I'm Australian and our infant mortality rate in 2015 was 3.2 per 1,000 live births and has been steadily dropping for years, eg down from 4.9 per 1,000 live births in 2005.
    Nationally, in the US, it's around 6 per 1,000 live births. It was hard to find the exact number because of stats at different sources varying from 6 to 6.5 – but it's close to, or just over double of my country, which has universal healthcare, which, I think, is an enormous factor.

    March 10, 2017
  16. Ram Romero said:

    Emily Graslie is a very beautiful nerd. She looks like a superhero hiding her identity as a nerd youtube educator. Your beautiful lips destruct me of what you are saying. I'm just staring at it and I felt I'm floating.

    March 10, 2017
  17. mobspeak said:

    Poor Bulldogs.

    March 11, 2017
  18. jaxplane said:

    dont like the 1920's librarian look, just sayin.

    March 16, 2017
  19. Anel Guerrero said:

    I cannot express how much I love these videos!! Emily is always so energetic and can get me excited about anything!!! I truly appreciate these videos and I often go back and watch them because I find everything so interesting!! I even started thinking about studying biology in college!! Keep up the good work!!!!

    March 19, 2017
  20. Jim Garrison said:

    That little baby at 00:15 is so damn cute.

    March 22, 2017
  21. uhh idk said:

    aaaaaaaand their gone again 😥

    March 22, 2017
  22. LiquidSlashes said:

    This is, for me atleast, the most entertaining series on Youtube

    March 24, 2017
  23. Figgity Jones said:

    Only just found this channel today through MinuteEarth and I just have to say, Emily, you are so incredibly charming and fun to watch! ^_^ I look forward to bingeing all your videos!

    March 28, 2017
  24. Donald Smith said:

    Thank you bill!!

    March 29, 2017
  25. Stare Gaming said:

    hi Emily do you remember me from yesterday

    March 29, 2017
  26. Nate said:

    Texas anti-choice logic: close all the health clinics to stop abortions to save unborn babies, leads to doubling of birth death rates, thereby killing actually born babies. Almost definitely won't admit they fucked up.

    March 31, 2017
  27. aline oliveira silva said:

    hinis touching Lucy pelvis like, o sure is not like something rare and famous on my hands

    March 31, 2017
  28. Victoria Cesare said:

    you guys are awesome. i really want an 'everything is dead' t shirt 😊 are they still available and how?

    April 8, 2017
  29. kiwifruitkl said:

    This phenomenon also applies to dogs. I remember my biology teacher once talked about the pug (or was it the bulldog?) that developed a big, cute head because humans wanted it that way. So, now pugs (bulldogs?) have trouble giving birth to puppies. Way to go, humanity. You've not only caused your own species to have trouble giving birth, but ruined the ability of other animals to deliver naturally and without assistance. Fortunately, pugs (bulldogs?) and humans get midwives, so that solves the problem. Yea for cultural evolution! 🙂

    ETA: Oh, the guy talks about bulldogs. Though, the cause for that anomaly is the human selective pressure on bulldogs. Humans already perform caesarean sections of bulldog mothers, because it's the easy way out. Humans should do so on themselves too, even if it means 90% of pregnant women get caesarean sections. 😛

    April 15, 2017
  30. KawaiiTøny said:

    I was a C-Section.

    April 16, 2017
  31. Morphanto said:

    im so happy that im male… i dont have to pop out the baby, but i need to ask her to marry me…

    April 21, 2017
  32. corvid said:

    where is emily? where are new brain scoop videos? im sad

    April 22, 2017
  33. The Pie said:

    He keeps touching the pelvis…

    April 23, 2017
  34. Cheesus said:

    We don't deserve Bill Gates

    April 26, 2017
  35. Jade said:

    But… the idea of sticking to natural births to make sure we don't end up becoming a species that needs cesarean essentially means letting nature SELECT for women who can give birth naturally, or babies that have small enough heads. Select as in, you know, make sure those genes don't get passed down…

    April 29, 2017
  36. Kylo Ren The Birdie said:

    My twin sister died through birth

    April 30, 2017
  37. erm said:

    I understand that this video is meant more to address the development of humam birth as a biological process, but I want to get this point out. Also I've had a few beers and am feeling chatty.

    When you discuss rates of C-sections, I feel it's important to acknowledge that in America planned births are often the best way to minimize missed work and missed wages. By just dropping the statistic that C-sections occur I 1 out of 3 births, it fails to acknowledge WHY that rate might be so high. So many working mothers need to be able to tell an employer "my baby will be born this day, I will be gone this many weeks and be back on this day" or risk not having a job. My coworker worked until the day before her C-section, took her six unpaid weeks off allowed by FMLA, and was back in the office -this is the common experience of many women who become pregnant while employed. And with the new health bill being considered and its provision that C-sections are preexisting conditions, it is nothing short of an attack on women.

    Additionally, I feel the bulldog analogy may be a touch inaccurate. We intentionally bred stocky, blocky headed dogs which lead to high rates of C-sections necessary to birth litters. But we are not intentionally breeding humans for physical traits, thus leading to no significant increase in the occurrence of C-sections of necessity. So I feel the argument shouldn't be "slow down on C-sections or soon we'll HAVE TO have them" but "we should examine why these rates are so high in industrialized countries with access to more natural options." (And don't even get me started on what actually determines 'access.')

    May 12, 2017
  38. Darrell Garibaldi said:

    Excellent video! Loads of information here that needs passed on to politicians who want to do away with programs that assist women who need prenatal care.

    May 13, 2017
  39. Dominique Hipolito said:

    I wonder if it would benefit the mother to lay eggs instead…

    May 15, 2017
  40. LolGuy said:

    Please, evolution is just a "theory"

    May 25, 2017
  41. hep the great said:

    I hate the pro life pro choice debate. because it just an oversimplification of a more complicated issue. I believe in pro choice up until 5 months. at that point the child can normally live outside the mother. this gives 5 months to discover the pregnancy and make a choice. after 5 months, I feel it is better to have the child and give it up for adoption if you still don't think you want the child. if at any point it is a choice between the mothers life and the child, the mothers life trumps the child's. the thing I'm absolutely against is mid birth abortions, where they kill the child as it is coming out. (before it is fully out to sidestep laws)

    May 26, 2017
  42. Rosie 47 said:

    Don't forget, the pelvis is not one bone. It is several, and it is connected by cartilage that relaxes when the chemicals are released by brain when a women is in labor.

    May 29, 2017
  43. Joanne Watts said:

    Just been directed here from Hank Green. Fab recommendation and brilliant video 😊

    June 3, 2017
  44. Elizabeth Proverbs 28:9 said:

    Both my boys were homebirths. My first son was 11#8 oz, and 24" long, with a 15" head. My second was 10#, and 23" long. I'm 5'10", average weight, I just have big babies.

    Both my boys were born with the help of the same midwife, and she'll deliver my third this November:).

    Birth is a natural process, and we don't need medical interventions, even with BIG babies. Their heads will mold and come out no matter what! (Except in the RARE case of Craniosynostosis!)

    Birth ROCKS!!

    June 23, 2017
  45. Alphastarseeds said:

    xyeah people who belive a god created humans are wrong n humans didnt come from apes or monkies ether

    June 25, 2017
  46. Begoña Iñarritu said:

    i really enjoy your show but this video is like 20% human evolution. the other 80% are social and health issues….. i was expecting something different.

    June 26, 2017
  47. Teh SparX said:

    Hey, I notice you over-act the annunciation of your words when speaking to the camera [Edit: SOMETIMES]. There's no need, chill out you're really good and clear on camera already 🙂

    July 8, 2017
  48. Clay Eltringham said:

    Those 2 laughs at the end just summed that video up perfectly….. awkward yet humorous with a touch of 'fuck having babies' hahaha

    July 19, 2017
  49. chickiefoo said:

    Boy howdy do I just love my home state of Texas! ~Sarcasm

    July 21, 2017
  50. Devito said:

    I wonder if he's ever gonna change his calendar to the right month and year…

    July 23, 2017
  51. AM L said:

    Around 6:18 – "…Decreasing the access to healthcare facilities actually exponentially increase the rate of infant and mother mortality."

    Why this even needs to be restated in this day and age is rather beyond me.

    August 3, 2017
  52. Mateus Bittencourt said:

    The video has a mistake… he's talking about maternal deaths (Death of the mother) and the graphic says infant mortality (death of the baby).

    The graphic shows maternal death rates and not infant mortality.

    Infant mortality in Texas is about 6 per 1000 births (before age of 1), and had no increase around 2010.

    August 6, 2017
  53. yuelin Li said:

    The reason why I am here: 30% because of the informations and knowledge and 70% of the chance to watch Emily geeking

    August 18, 2017
  54. Michele Nakamura said:

    Just found you. Just subscribed. Have you done scishow?

    August 21, 2017
  55. J Wilder said:

    As a Texan, what can I do or who would I contact to make them aware of this study and help lower those numbers? This is outrageous and a tragedy!

    August 24, 2017
  56. packerfan2016 said:

    0:21, giving the baby drugs? really?

    August 27, 2017
  57. Megan Yandell said:

    I'm in Texas and my dad's an OBGYN and he encounters women insisting on C-sections all the time so he constantly has to try to explain to them why C-sections should be saved for medical reasons. I'm also sad, but not surprised, to hear the poor decisions by conservative legislators have significantly impacted the mortality of mothers and children.

    August 28, 2017
  58. Micaela Morton said:

    I delivered my daughter with her face up…. posterior presentation. He explains it as if all babies are born facing down…. Which is complete nonsense.

    September 9, 2017
  59. A. Bookmonkey said:

    I just noticed the soon racoon pin on her jacket 😂😍

    September 14, 2017
  60. SomeoneCommenting said:

    C-sections are NOT helping humanity, as you let women with no ability to give birth naturally to pass those genes on. One of these days we will end up simply having a large amount of humans unable to give birth naturally ever, no matter how much they try. We always keep doing stuff that degrades our species, not improve it. Since we started fighting against Nature's 'survival of the fittest' all that we do is allowing people with genetic defects to have children and stuff like that, ruining the human gene pool in favor of stupid sentimentalism and biologically worthless morals. It's awful to see selfish deformed parents giving birth to their deformed children "because they want to show that love is more important". Are you F*** kidding me? I don't want to be born deformed because of your selfish wish, like if I had to prove that I could be happy struggling all life with my deformity only because you wanted to make some point.

    September 16, 2017
  61. SurrealKangaroo said:

    When I saw the thumbnail I thought they were alien skulls.

    September 17, 2017
  62. Not Wanheda said:

    Texas yet again proves how moronic legislation leads to death. From this to allowing people to build structures in known flood planes (Houston)…. I can't wait to move, I'm so ashamed to be living here it makes me feel like I'm a part of the malarky.

    September 18, 2017
  63. Latisha Jackson said:

    i gave birth normal no mid wife here just a DR that deliverd the baby my sister tho had to be cut open with both of her boys first one was going to be born breach and the second one they just went ahead and took him the same way because there could have been problems

    September 22, 2017
  64. J Cortese said:

    This need for midwives is probably one of the biggest forces compelling social behavior. Basically, if you don't have a natural drive to make friends, u gon DIE when the time comes to reproduce. Wouldn't take many iterations of that to push a species toward the chatty end of the spectrum when more sociable creatures are much more likely to survive, along with their young.

    Between this and the growing realization that cooking may have been the single most important driver for the creation of those enormous human brains, I confess I am experiencing great schadenfreude in watching those old "eat, f**k, kill" hyper-macho theories of evolution from the 60s and 70s dropping like flies. 🙂

    October 6, 2017
  65. sir9integra9jr said:

    Note that his calendar says october 2015 and the publication date of the video says february 2017. Backlog of content and upload schedule aside, that goes to show just how much effort goes into these videos. Bravo!

    October 9, 2017
  66. CD said:

    Maybe I shouldn't have watched this when I'm pregnant. 😐
    At least I don't live in Texas.

    November 3, 2017
  67. Alec S said:

    If we have to many c-sections then we will increase the number of women with small pelvises and then do more c-sections thus creating a positive feedback.

    November 5, 2017
  68. Steve-o said:

    ⛅Hi Sunshine🤔. Yea Mom! ✌💖🤗~🌞🌎⚬ …

    November 6, 2017
  69. A. DUBITANTE said:

    In Germany, midwives are on the decline, because no company will insure them, or only on impossibly high rates, and they aren't allowed to work uninsured…

    How is that in other countries?

    November 7, 2017
  70. Billy Wardlaw said:

    Follow-up question to the Texas INF Mort rate: Was there a proportionate decrease in the number of abortions?

    November 9, 2017
  71. Yasemin Işık said:

    If we keep having c-sections then we're gonna end up like bulldogs implies that we should let the big headed babies get stuck in the birth canal so that their genes won't be passed on.

    November 11, 2017
  72. Nick Moretti said:

    Oh c'mon girl empower yourself!!! Plenty of women have unassisted birth and it ain't that hard otherwise!

    November 29, 2017
  73. Daenerys Targaryen said:

    Overpopulation is a growing stress.

    November 30, 2017
  74. Autumn said:

    Humans are amazingly complex and intricate. It's truly beautiful.

    January 3, 2018
  75. ellie said:

    I could listen to that man for the rest of my life just constantly lmao

    January 6, 2018
  76. Michael Bias said:

    Whoa, "The Evolution of Human Birth" – 1 minute on the evolution and 8 minutes and 23 seconds on the politics of women's health care. Disappointing.

    January 7, 2018
  77. Desireé said:

    The Birth Partner by Penny Simkin (who is basically the doula guru of our century!) details the reasons why the US (and some other western countries) have such a high cesarean rate and the drawbacks to both cesareans and inducing labour. This book is the standard for those looking to become a doula, birth partner (to your friend or wife), or even those people or moms who are interested in knowing more about childbirth.

    January 16, 2018
  78. Jesse C said:

    6:00 – Thumbs up for telling the truth.

    January 18, 2018
  79. Reeno Beano said:

    Did you know an anthropologist can tell how many children a woman has had by looking at the pelvic bone? Yep, they look to see how many times the pelvic bone has broken itself and rehealed, it leaves sort of a tic mark on the pelvic bone. Every tic is how many kids you've pushed out. Man I tell ya when I first heard that I never twisted my legs so hard, like, "THE PELVIC BONE DOES WHAT."

    January 18, 2018
  80. inue windwalker said:

    I'm one of those 122 million because I was born dead
    That being said I'm pro choice because my mom almost died I'd rather be dead than my mom

    February 4, 2018
  81. dirkbonesteel said:

    Are those penis bone earrings?

    June 14, 2018
  82. Everlasting • said:

    they have baby skulls 😮😮

    July 1, 2018
  83. eakherenow said:

    Why not spread your money more generously.Gates is not admirable.

    July 20, 2018
  84. eakherenow said:

    The PROFIT MOTIVE has made the death rate shoot up.

    July 20, 2018
  85. messy jesse said:

    I'm sorry but that white guys voice makes me wanna sleep

    July 30, 2018
  86. loogiemistress said:

    Oh no, we are going to end up like British bulldogs!

    August 26, 2018
  87. Nara Feralina said:

    Let's not end up like the bulldogs… I once read an article about a son improvising a caesarean on his birthing mother in the middle of nowhere.

    August 28, 2018
  88. Amber Rhoades said:

    I had an emergency c-section in 2015 while giving birth to my son bc he was in distress & his heart rate dropped caused by him attempting to push his way out breach (aka butt first) & his legs were pushing up against his chest causing issues w/his heart rate (& no I did not push, my body was allowing him to drop down on its own). I didn't have a second to think. I was told it was a life or death situation for my son. I was rushed to the OR & put under anesthesia within 15 minutes, so I was out cold for my son's birth. I've always felt robbed of the birthing experience. And even more so now that my husband & I are trying for our 2nd child bc NO doctors in my town/state (that I know of) will allow a woman to attempt natural/vaginal birth after having a c-section in the past. . Even though I've heard it's possible with proper care & monitoring.

    October 1, 2018
  89. Kuznetcova Viktoriia said:

    Maybe I misheard, but why would you have full anesthesia for caesarian? For me it was a 30 minutes long surgery start to finish, with local anesthesia. And it was emergency one, too – I imagine planned one would've been even better, without all the unnecessary pain and worry around it. YEs it is a major surgery, but it is a pretty safe one as far as surgeries go, and it helps prevent birth traumas for mums and bubs, especially given that newborns seem to be getting bigger and bigger.
    The stats comparing midwives-assisted clildbirth cases with obstetrician assisted ones tend to not control for the simple fact that more complicated pregnancies usually end up with obstetricians in the first place, so lengthly labour might very well be due to that, and not due to who's assisting. And don't get me started on midwives. They are all good and well for uncomplicated pregnancies and textbook births, sure. But they seem to lack hard scientific knowledge and the boundaries of their responsibilities – i.e. when to pass the case to a doctor. I had a hell of a third trimester thanks to my midwife (otherwise a nice lady with the best intentions and tonnes of experience – just not with the scientific approach) trying to make me feel better instead of doing blood tests to address my concerns. This is a common enough complaint. Those who are lucky and didn't have any issues can be taken care of by midwifes. The problem is if you aren't one of the lucky ones, you might be pretty screwed if you aren't with the doctor.

    October 12, 2018
  90. Jascha Bull said:

    But without all those Cesarean sections, how will the country produce enough people who are capable of killing the next Macbeth?

    November 2, 2018
  91. CCH Delirium said:

    Had a hospital birth, hated it. Chose home birth with a midwife and I can tell you, best decision I could have made. It was indescribable.

    December 17, 2018
  92. william pratt said:

    The last few statements, specifically referring to reduction in infant birth rate /increased amount of c-sections, are contradictory to each other. The bulldog would not be able to survive if not for the C-section. what he seems to be suggesting is that women who are not capable of birth by normal means should not have children.

    December 21, 2018
  93. K Murray said:

    So glad I am becoming a midwife!!!

    January 3, 2019
  94. Nullus Anxietas said:

    Brainscoop, I love you but a little skepticism and research on you part would be super great. C-Sections aren't going to feck up human birth, we suck at it anyway.

    Smh when people (particularly like the anthropologist in this video) shit on elective C-Sections. A. There is no harm to the baby (or human evolution.) B. He never had to give birth during his lifetime. His pelvic floor and continence were never on the line. C. Why do we fetishise birthing traditions and birth? Birth sucks for women for all the reasons stated in the video. Why not massively reduce the risks of complications to mother and child with simple surgery? BTW where I C-Sections are usually preformed with an epidural on conscious patients so anethesia isn't the terrible risk presented in the video.

    I'm not advocating for mandatory C-Sections as someone will probably try to infer, but for women, particularly women with family histories of difficult birth or even just not wanting to go through a very long natural birth, to be able to make reproductive choices without being pressured to do what some people think is the right thing because of "tradition" and unrelated and unequivocal bulldog buttscience. Just a thought.

    March 25, 2019
  95. poptartkif said:

    baby skulls look like alien skulls

    May 2, 2019
  96. poptartkif said:

    .-. we did not evolve from apes. perhaps our pelvises are just different from that of apes

    May 2, 2019
  97. AlterDieg8 said:

    Muy bueno.

    May 31, 2019
  98. sk8catatonik said:

    Wow women have needed assistance for 2 millio—- OMG THAT NECKLACE IS PERFECT.

    June 27, 2019
  99. Michael O said:

    I want a desk full of baby skulls.

    September 20, 2019
  100. Hannah Dyson said:

    So in essence , C sections bad vaginal births are good , in the UK where midwives do most deliveries the natural childbirth movement has caused a lot of disappointment ,pressures women and even gulit trips them for having pain relief . The royal collage of Midwives has said it's abandoing this approach as it hasn't worked .

    What you need is a well trained ,competent kind midwife and not a lay midwife ( with no qualifications ) who can say , hey it's not going to plan (20%of births don't ) I think we need a doctor . And don't shame for not wanting to give birth at home ,for some women that's stressful. Some women are too high risk for midwives and homebirths.

    At the end it sounds like he's suggesting we should let women who need C sections and their babies die .

    Would he be so blaise if it was his granddaughter or niece ?.

    I had hoped for a video without bias. What a shame in another wise interesting documetry

    October 22, 2019

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