How to sequence the human genome – Mark J. Kiel


You’ve probably heard of the human genome, the huge collection of genes inside each and every one of your cells. You probably also know that we’ve sequenced the human genome, but what does that actually mean? How do you sequence someone’s genome? Let’s back up a bit. What is a genome? Well, a genome is all the genes plus some extra that make up an organism. Genes are made up of DNA, and DNA is made up of long, paired strands of A’s, T’s, C’s, and G’s. Your genome is the code that your cells use to know how to behave. Cells interacting together make tissues. Tissues cooperating with each other make organs. Organs cooperating with each other make an organism, you! So, you are who you are in large part because of your genome. The first human genome was sequenced ten years ago and was no easy task. It took two decades to complete, required the effort of hundreds of scientists across dozens of countries, and cost over three billion dollars. But some day very soon, it will be possible to know the sequence of letters that make up your own personal genome all in a matter of minutes and for less than the cost of a pretty nice birthday present. How is that possible? Let’s take a closer look. Knowing the sequence of the billions of letters that make up your genome is the goal of genome sequencing. A genome is both really, really big and very, very small. The individual letters of DNA, the A’s, T’s, G’s, and C’s, are only eight or ten atoms wide, and they’re all packed together into a clump, like a ball of yarn. So, to get all that information out of that tiny space, scientists first have to break the long string of DNA down into smaller pieces. Each of these pieces is then separated in space and sequenced individually, but how? It’s helpful to remember that DNA binds to other DNA if the sequences are the exact opposite of each other. A’s bind to T’s, and T’s bind to A’s. G’s bind to C’s, and C’s to G’s. If the A-T-G-C sequence of two pieces of DNA are exact opposites, they stick together. Because the genome pieces are so very small, we need some way to increase the signal we can detect from each of the individual letters. In the most common method, scientists use enzymes to make thousands of copies of each genome piece. So, we now have thousands of replicas of each of the genome pieces, all with the same sequence of A’s, T’s, G’s, and C’s. But we have to read them all somehow. To do this, we need to make a batch of special letters, each with a distinct color. A mixture of these special colored letters and enzymes are then added to the genome we’re trying to read. At each spot on the genome, one of the special letters binds to its opposite letter, so we now have a double-stranded piece of DNA with a colorful spot at each letter. Scientists then take pictures of each snippet of genome. Seeing the order of the colors allows us to read the sequence. The sequences of each of these millions of pieces of DNA are stitched together using computer programs to create a complete sequence of the entire genome. This isn’t the only way to read the letter sequences of pieces of DNA, but it’s one of the most common. Of course, just reading the letters in the genome doesn’t tell us much. It’s kind of like looking through a book written in a language you don’t speak. You can recognize all the letters but still have no idea what’s going on. So, the next step is to decipher what the sequence means, how your genome and my genome are different. Interpreting the genes of the genome is the part scientists are still working on. While not every difference is consequential, the sum of these differences is responsible for differences in how we look, what we like, how we act, and even how likely we are to get sick or respond to specific medicines. Better understanding of how disparities between our genomes account for these differences is sure to change the way we think not only about how doctors treat their patients, but also how we treat each other.

100 Comments

  1. Visalani Govindasamy said:

    good

    May 26, 2016
    Reply
  2. bulu uluil said:

    Lmaooo omg it's all fucking made up!

    June 8, 2016
    Reply
  3. Harjinder Sandhu said:

    A lot to time taken and is explained to a very high standard.
    Well done!

    June 30, 2016
    Reply
  4. Monkey D. Person said:

    Wow.. I think I just found out how the name for the movie "GATTACA" was found!

    July 4, 2016
    Reply
  5. Flyin' Japman said:

    So much to learn…so few years to learn it all.

    July 6, 2016
    Reply
  6. Unicorns and Rainbows Bih said:

    Out of all those videos i watched for " what is Genome" this was the best !!!

    August 4, 2016
    Reply
  7. Gandor said:

    This video is already 3 years old..

    My last birthday gifts:
    2 Tea cups.
    1 Deodorant.
    1 Picture frame.
    10 Euros.
    1 burned dvd with downloaded movies.
    0 GENOME SEQUENCERS

    August 23, 2016
    Reply
  8. Francesco said:

    This deserves more visual!

    September 9, 2016
    Reply
  9. acdnan said:

    this shit is like computer code ๐Ÿ˜ฒ

    September 16, 2016
    Reply
  10. Diana Rmz said:

    This is seriously amazing! ๐Ÿ˜

    October 20, 2016
    Reply
  11. Endress Gutholland said:

    010101

    October 27, 2016
    Reply
  12. nina gilshteyn said:

    This is not map based sequencing. This is the sangar method.

    November 13, 2016
    Reply
  13. Muhammet M said:

    Hi, I have a question. Soat min 3.39 the narrator says that the pieces of DNA are stitched together. I'm assuming that this is done by the overlapping ends.. But could there not be errors where the ends might be overlapping but the mid parts are different? Wouldnt that cause wrong pieces to be stiched? Thanks. Newbie student

    January 7, 2017
    Reply
  14. Patty Rojas said:

    What's the name of the sequencing method represented in the video?

    February 10, 2017
    Reply
  15. Tomohisa Maruyama said:

    This is good for education. Thanks!

    April 16, 2017
    Reply
  16. Sarva Khitana said:

    this was really sweet animation. well done and thank you

    April 18, 2017
    Reply
  17. Chan Jiayi said:

    hope that there are more info on application of molecular biology can be made into animation like this for better understanding

    April 30, 2017
    Reply
  18. Husam S. said:

    How great who is created the human body. Thank God.

    May 2, 2017
    Reply
  19. Mayur Panghaal said:

    weve come a long way since then…and now we have our very own word processor for genes called CRISPR CAS9.

    May 6, 2017
    Reply
  20. dracuito dracuito said:

    So we are technically computer programs?

    May 22, 2017
    Reply
  21. Guru Priya said:

    I love ted ed

    June 28, 2017
    Reply
  22. okayo charl!sede said:

    Well explained. Thank you!

    July 1, 2017
    Reply
  23. shivam bhanushali said:

    all the genes that make up an organism…(plus some extra)… what's this supposed to mean?… someone please explain…

    July 8, 2017
    Reply
  24. Resa Banerjee said:

    wow it explained so nicely .Thanx…,

    July 22, 2017
    Reply
  25. ramachandra rao said:

    genome is the total number of nucleotide present in single chromosome

    July 24, 2017
    Reply
  26. go ahead said:

    Awesome…that's so cool….Love it….thank you!!!

    August 3, 2017
    Reply
  27. Rocket Raccoons said:

    I genetically all over the world humans into furries.

    August 13, 2017
    Reply
  28. Marciano Padilla said:

    Quantum computing will make gene sequencing easy.

    September 3, 2017
    Reply
  29. Pias Crew said:

    tnq

    September 15, 2017
    Reply
  30. Shanu Bhuiyan said:

    Just wow !!

    November 1, 2017
    Reply
  31. Sophie VH said:

    That was really good.

    November 4, 2017
    Reply
  32. Erika Roxas said:

    What if the person who they used to sequnce the genome actually had a mutation?

    November 6, 2017
    Reply
  33. SHIV DESAI said:

    I love this video so much!!!!!!!!!!

    November 7, 2017
    Reply
  34. Joyson Wildhart said:

    ok these animations need to chill

    November 7, 2017
    Reply
  35. ProgrammingNewbie said:

    Something like Moores Law smfh

    November 20, 2017
    Reply
  36. David Kirby said:

    Is it even possible to map the whole thing?

    November 25, 2017
    Reply
  37. Dagmara Gadomska said:

    Awesome! Thank you!

    December 12, 2017
    Reply
  38. Fatiha B. said:

    I recently had a project about the history of genetics and the genome sequencing was the hardest part for me to understand
    so thank you for this videos โ™ก

    December 12, 2017
    Reply
  39. Yasser Arguelles said:

    Foreshadowing 23andMe

    January 14, 2018
    Reply
  40. jakkrit pongphadung said:

    เธ‚เธญเธšเธ„เธธเธ“เธกเธฒเธเน†เธ„เธฃเธฑเธš
    เธชเธณเธซเธฃเธฑเธšเธเธฒเธฃเธšเธฃเธฃเธขเธฒเธข เน„เธ—เธข

    January 21, 2018
    Reply
  41. Mysunettingpoem said:

    Hi from 2018, people get to know their ancestry with genome tests, they only cost 90$ per kit so

    January 29, 2018
    Reply
  42. Lead Genie said:

    Will blockchain technology be created to track genomes so that globally we can share data and understand the mathematical connections between dna?

    February 14, 2018
    Reply
  43. jakstrike1 said:

    Really annoying voice

    March 18, 2018
    Reply
  44. Rylee Crowell said:

    I don't think this project actually took over two decades to complete. In fact, the HGP was completed two years ahead of their original 15-year goal in 2003.

    April 5, 2018
    Reply
  45. C.A.A said:

    Tryna to understand the human genome. B.o.B. Brought me here

    April 9, 2018
    Reply
  46. Max Eisenhardt said:

    I can't wait till we start biologically creating perfect humans

    April 20, 2018
    Reply
  47. IRAQI GAMER said:

    ุฑุงุฆุน

    April 20, 2018
    Reply
  48. Shama Parveen Taj said:

    Very nice lecture ๐Ÿ‘Œ๐Ÿ™

    May 9, 2018
    Reply
  49. Godzilla John said:

    Human life, animal life, and plant life was created by God(Father,Jesus,Holy Spirit) according to the bible.

    June 15, 2018
    Reply
  50. Ned Stark said:

    Whut ??? I thought she was going to tell us about gene sequencing by Sanger method or chemical methods

    June 27, 2018
    Reply
  51. Emilios Powerballer said:

    so the answet the question 'how to sequence the human genome' is WE DONT KNOW YET

    July 9, 2018
    Reply
  52. เจ…เจคเจตเจพเจฆเฉ€ said:

    Brave new world! Feeling sad? take SOMAAAA

    July 17, 2018
    Reply
  53. c.sagan said:

    Not enough…explain more

    July 30, 2018
    Reply
  54. JJ HNF said:

    WOOOOOOWWWWWWWW

    August 2, 2018
    Reply
  55. Sagar Panchal said:

    thanks mam

    August 18, 2018
    Reply
  56. adine dela cruz said:

    Central Dogma is spinning my mind out

    August 18, 2018
    Reply
  57. Ashu Barthwal said:

    Shouldn't add caption of hindi

    August 24, 2018
    Reply
  58. Sabarish Ganesan said:

    do you have any video for packaging of DNA

    August 24, 2018
    Reply
  59. Meena Choudhary said:

    how do u creat such illustrious in your videos..??

    August 25, 2018
    Reply
  60. Rajeev T said:

    this is an amazing information about the human body and very interesting to watch the video of the human genome project.

    September 8, 2018
    Reply
  61. Ysabella Williams said:

    Thank you

    September 13, 2018
    Reply
  62. Gowtham T said:

    Very complex than Nuclear physics… Very tough subject

    September 20, 2018
    Reply
  63. tree91090 said:

    Human cell have 23 pair of DNA. Does this all 23 pair DNA Genome sequences? does all 23 pairs each other are identical?

    September 24, 2018
    Reply
  64. Stan Mann said:

    Please tell me where the behavior switches are in the human genome? All i see are switches for physical attributes.

    September 28, 2018
    Reply
  65. ้™ˆ้›จๅ‡ก said:

    Un beliable

    October 2, 2018
    Reply
  66. Zahid Khan said:

    I dont believe that!!

    October 20, 2018
    Reply
  67. Ola Abdallah said:

    ๐Ÿคฏ

    November 3, 2018
    Reply
  68. Stan Mann said:

    Where are the behavior markings in the genome?

    November 6, 2018
    Reply
  69. Raphael Pires Filho said:

    Very cool! I've learned at school that Brazil cooperated to the Genoma Project you mention at minute 1:16 in this video. You've hightlighted on the Earth globe, US, some contries at Europe and Asia, but not Brazil. Don't you think, or don't you know, Brazil made a relevant work on this international efforce to decode the human being DNA?

    November 8, 2018
    Reply
  70. starwin legaste said:

    this very helpful thank you TED-ED i really need this for my Research and Science Subject

    December 6, 2018
    Reply
  71. Carla Patricia Rodrigues Barroso said:

    Tem q usar estas tรฉcnicas para a cura das doenรงas como cรขncer hiv etc

    December 10, 2018
    Reply
  72. ViniByte said:

    Every Pubg player haa GATCA in their blood..

    December 14, 2018
    Reply
  73. Boi Player4 said:

    I promise you I will forget this tomorrow. I like learning about these things but I will have to watch it around 7 times before I can remember it. There's just so much information. Good job.

    January 10, 2019
    Reply
  74. Sana Nasir said:

    not complete, much info is missing .

    January 15, 2019
    Reply
  75. Nowar Mahairy said:

    Onu bir de vuran bir de Kur'an

    January 19, 2019
    Reply
  76. anthony diulio said:

    gattacagattacagattacagattacagattacagattacagattacagattacagattacagattacagattacagattacagattacagattacagattacagattacagattaca

    February 24, 2019
    Reply
  77. The Keralian said:

    This means , we literally found ourselves .

    March 6, 2019
    Reply
  78. Amina Kaja said:

    To the people saying it's too simple, chill tf out, honestly, Ted-Ed wants to teach us something simple, not go to the depths of genetics. Us mere mortals require simplified versions of things like these so if you don't like it, leave. You don't have to sh?t on a great video that probably took ages to make.

    March 29, 2019
    Reply
  79. Robert Dem said:

    Thatโ€™s why Iโ€™m studying biochemistry

    April 15, 2019
    Reply
  80. Vishaka Durgam said:

    Amazing explanation mam

    April 15, 2019
    Reply
  81. Przebiegunowani Tv said:

    How can you repair damaged DNA yourself?
    https://youtu.be/vJx4X8b0mrY

    May 9, 2019
    Reply
  82. Abdul Wazid said:

    what is DNA, no vaculory system explainaition

    May 11, 2019
    Reply
  83. Ali Hamza said:

    ุฒูŠู† ู‡ุณู‘ุฉ ุขู†ูŠ ุดูุชู‡ู…ุช ุŸ

    June 14, 2019
    Reply
  84. frisianmouve said:

    2000: Finally we finished this multi-billion dollar international effort to map the human genome.

    2019: just spit here, I'll tell you every letter in your genome for a 1000 bucks

    August 6, 2019
    Reply
  85. MEHAZ said:

    FIRST MATTER: In every facet of the motion of all particles the light of Divine unity shines like the sun. For as is proved briefly in the First Indication of the Tenth Word and in detail in the Twenty-Second Word, if every particle is not an official of God acting with His permission and under His authority, and if it is not undergoing change within His knowledge and power, then every particle must have infinite knowledge and limitless power; it must have eyes that see everything, a face that looks to all things, and authority over all things. For every particle of the elements acts, or can act, in an orderly fashion in all animate beings. But the order within things and laws according to which they are formed differ from one thing to the next. If their order was not known to the particles, the particles could not act, or even if they could act, they could not act without error. In which case, the particles which are performing their duties in beings are either acting with the permission and at the command, and within the knowledge and at the will, of the owner of an all-encompassing knowledge, or they themselves must have such an all-encompassing knowledge and power. Yes, all particles of air can enter the bodies of all animate beings, the fruits of all flowers, and the structures of all leaves. They can act within them, although the way the beings are formed is all different and their order and systems quite distinct. As though the factory of a fig was a loom for weaving cloth and the factory of a pomegranate, a machine for producing sugar, and so on; the programmes of their structures and bodies all differ from each other. A particle of air, then, enters or can enter all of them. It takes up its position and acts in a wise and masterly fashion without error. And on completion of its duty it departs. A mobile particle of mobile air, therefore, either must know the forms, shapes, measures, and formations with which plants and animals, and even fruits and flowers, are clothed, or else it must be an official acting under the command and will of one who does know. Similarly with a stationary particle of stationary earth: since it has the ability to be the means and place of cultivation for all the seeds of all flowering plants and fruit-bearing trees, either there must be in the particle itself or in the handful of soil that is its little house immaterial machinery and factories in good working order to the number of the varieties of the trees and plants, and flowers and fruits in fact, it is in every single particle that there must be a factory peculiar to it and all the equipment and machinery necessary for the running of the factory or else it must have a miraculous knowledge that knows all things about all things and a miracle-working power that creates everything from nothing; or, those duties are performed at the command and with the permission of One Who is Knowing of All Things, and through the power and might of One Who is Absolutely Powerful over All Things. If an untrained and inexperienced, common, ordinary, and blind man was to go to Europe and in all the factories there to work at all the trades and crafts in perfect and masterly fashion, and if he was to display a wise and artistic skill to such a degree that it left everyone speechless with amazement, anyone with a grain of consciousness would know that the man was not acting on his own initiative, but that a master of all trades was teaching him and causing him to work. And if there was a blind and impotent man who lived in a simple little house and was unable even to rise from his place, and if small fragments of stone, and bits and pieces of material like bone and cotton were to enter his little house and then sacks of sugar, bales of cloth, crates of jewelry, finely-made clothes encrusted with jewels, and delicious foods were to emerge, would anyone with a grain of intelligence not say: "That man is a wretched doorkeeper or merely a latch on the door of the factory of a wondrous miracle-working being, which is the source of his miracles"? In exactly the same way, the motion and duties of particles of air in plants and trees, and blossom and fruit, all of which are missives of the Eternally Besought One, antique dominical works of art, miracles of power, and wonders of wisdom, indicate that the particles are acting under the command and at the will of an All-Wise and Glorious Maker, an All-Generous and Beauteous Creator. Particles of earth, also, since they are the source and means for the shoots and plants produced by seeds, each of which is a different factory and workbench, a different printing-press, treasury, and antique, a different manifesto proclaiming the Glorious Maker's Names and ode hymning His perfections, it is as definite as two plus two equalling four that the particles of earth are acting at the command, with the permission, and through the will and power of an All-Glorious Maker Who is Lord of the command of "Be!" and it is, {[*]: Qur'an, 36:82, etc.} and to Whose command everything is subjugated. In this we believe. Risale-i Nur Collection 572 – Bediรผzzaman Said Nursi

    August 27, 2019
    Reply
  86. Ajay V V said:

    Awesome…..

    September 7, 2019
    Reply
  87. Felipe Lorenzzon said:

    Is that voice from a scishow hostess?

    September 7, 2019
    Reply
  88. C.P. Yadav said:

    Thanks for good explain

    September 17, 2019
    Reply
  89. priyanka jungari said:

    Ted ed is very good channel to acquire knowledge, which we should know.. Thank you… Keep it up

    September 30, 2019
    Reply
  90. Banusha Banu said:

    Thank you so much. Really helpful

    October 13, 2019
    Reply
  91. kabooom120 said:

    Can the digital light microscope show the colors of the DNA?

    October 16, 2019
    Reply
  92. Seppe Zimmerer said:

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    October 17, 2019
    Reply
  93. Yogesh Ghodke said:

    Thank you

    October 20, 2019
    Reply
  94. Noah MacBride said:

    4087 K

    October 31, 2019
    Reply
  95. Noah MacBride said:

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    Viewport / Frames966x543*2.00 / 0 dropped of 980
    Current / Optimal [email protected] / 1920×[email protected]
    Volume / Normalized100% / 100% (content loudness -3.7dB)
    Codecsavc1.640028 (137) / mp4a.40.2 (140)
    Connection Speed4040 Kbps
    Network Activity112 KB
    Buffer Health40.95 s
    Mystery Text

    October 31, 2019
    Reply
  96. Noah MacBride said:

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    October 31, 2019
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  97. Noah MacBride said:

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    October 31, 2019
    Reply
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    October 31, 2019
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  99. Jucho said:

    Wtf

    November 16, 2019
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  100. Pasta Playmobile said:

    qui pour buildfight

    November 18, 2019
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