8 Stages of Development by Erik Erikson

Erikson’s Theory of Psycho-social Development identifies eight stages in which a healthy individual should pass through from birth to death. At each stages we encounter different needs, ask new questions and meet people who influence our behaviour and learning. Stage 1 “Basic Trust vs. Mistrust” #Infancy (1-2 years) As infants we ask ourselves if we can trust the world and we wonder if it’s safe. We learn that if we can trust someone now, we can also trust others in the future. If we experience fear, we develop doubt and mistrust. The key to our development is our mother. Stage 2 “Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt” #Early childhood (2-4 years) In our early childhood, we experience ourselves and discover our body. We ask: is it okay to be me? If we are allowed to discover ourselves, then we develop self-confidence. If we are not, we can develop shame and self-doubt. Both parents now play a major role. Stage 3 “Initiative vs. Guilt” #Preschool Age (4-5 years) In preschool, we take initiative, try out new things, and learn basic principles like how round things roll. We ask: Is it okay for me to do what I do? If we are encouraged, we can follow our interests. If we are held back or told that what we do is silly, we can develop guilt. We are now learning from the entire family. Stage 4 “Industry vs. Inferiority” #School Age (5-12 years) Now we discover our own interests and realize that we are different from others. We want to show that we can do things right. We ask if we can make it in this world? If we receive recognition from our teachers or peers we become industrious, which is another word for hard-working. If we get too much negative feedback, we start to feel inferior and lose motivation. Our neighbors and schools now influence us the most. Stage 5 “Identity vs. Role Confusion” #Adolescence (13–19 years) During adolescence we learn that we have different social roles. We are friends, students, children and citizens. Many experience an identity crises. If our parents now allow us to go out and explore, we can find identity. If they push us to conform to their views, we can face role confusion and feel lost. Key to our learning are our peers and role models. Stage 6 “Intimacy vs. Isolation” #Early Adulthood (20-40 years) As young adults we slowly understand who we are and we start to let go of the relationships we had built earlier in order to fit in. We ask ourselves if we can love? If we can make a long-term commitment, we are confident and happy. If we cannot form intimate relationships, we might end up feeling isolated and lonely. Our friends and partners are now center to our development. Stage 7 “Generativity vs. Stagnation” #Adulthood (40-65) When we reach our forties we become comfortable, use our leisure time creatively and maybe begin contributing to society. Our concern is Generativity. If we think that we are able to lead the next generation into this world, we are happy. If we did not resolve some conflicts earlier, we can become pessimistic and experience stagnation. People at home and at work are now who influence us most. Stage 8 “Ego Integrity vs. Despair” #Maturity (65-death) As we grow older we tend to slow down and begin to look back over our lives. We ask: how have I done? If we think we did well, we develop feelings of contentment and integrity. If not, we can experience despair and become grumpy and bitter. Time to compare us with mankind. Erik Erikson was a German-American psychologist who together with his wife Joan, became known for his work on psychosocial development. He was influenced by Sigmund and Anna Freud and became famous for coining the phrase
“Identity crisis.” Although Erikson lacked even a bachelor’s degree, he served as a professor at Harvard and Yale. This video was made for us by MinuteVideos.com who were doing everything to make awesome videos affordable. So if you want to make your own video, please check out their website. If you tell them you came from Sprouts, they’ll give you a 10% discount and they’ll donate 50$ for our next video which would really help our channel. If you work in a company, why not use them for internal training. If you’re a teacher or school, you can make your own lessons. Just go to MinuteVideos.com and order your video for as little as $600 . Thank you for watching 🙂


  1. KLJF said:

    I see none of the comments are from people intelligent enough to see this is capitalist indoctrination AND a method of turning good people into criminals so the establishment has a "villan" to subjugate . disgusting ! and will lead to the apocalypse .

    October 23, 2018
  2. tamizharasan anitha said:

    I love the drawing Its fantastic

    November 7, 2018
  3. Andrea Sote said:


    November 8, 2018
  4. sonja cioran said:

    Can you add russian subtitles?

    November 14, 2018
  5. alis said:

    the background music ruins the video, just take this awful music off

    November 14, 2018
  6. bernadeth love said:


    November 17, 2018
  7. Christine Oconer said:

    Thank you for sharing. It helps a lot! 😊

    November 21, 2018
  8. Conner Fields said:

    Do these relate to the unconscious for Erikson?

    November 27, 2018
  9. Conner Fields said:

    The late end of this seems a little slanted. This is where I encountered problems in my development though (am I then a self-defeating thinker).

    November 27, 2018
  10. Ani Listherchill said:

    Amazing artist

    November 28, 2018
  11. Emily said:

    You just saved my psych grade

    December 4, 2018
  12. Howard professional beyblader said:

    explained better then my actual school

    December 11, 2018
  13. Parminder Kaur said:

    has anyone ever read about lifespan relationships and crisis
    I cant find any video about thsese plz guide me

    December 29, 2018
  14. faiza Psy said:

    شكراااااا ..شرح رائع

    January 1, 2019
  15. Gulnaz Ara said:

    Very nice

    January 8, 2019
  16. Latasha Brown said:

    I am so glad that I watch this video! It was very informative and I was able to pay attention and listen! This was very helpful.

    January 16, 2019
  17. MrBlackBird242 said:

    Gr 12 psychology hw here I go?

    January 17, 2019
  18. Vedat Çiçekli said:

    Türkçe alt yazı yok mu

    January 20, 2019
  19. A gamer called Rian said:

    Interesting. 🙂

    January 20, 2019
  20. Ket rin said:

    so you paid 600$ for this video??? :O

    January 22, 2019
  21. I Like That said:

    thanks 💕💕

    January 22, 2019
  22. Arjita Kalra said:

    How is it possible to serve as a professor at some university while you didn't even have a bachelor degree?

    January 25, 2019
  23. Sandhi Prema said:


    January 26, 2019
  24. Dr Dharmesh Bhadja said:

    I love the pic of Che Guerra as Role Model… ha ha.

    February 10, 2019
  25. mehak batool said:

    What happened to the guy's arm? Is it burnt?

    February 14, 2019
  26. Sam said:


    February 27, 2019
  27. Sam said:

    FCK th meuc x D

    February 28, 2019
  28. Kuba Grotowski said:

    You forgot the
    0,5.minecraft phase
    1.fnaf phase
    2.mlg phase
    3.normal phade
    4.emo phase (rare)

    March 21, 2019
  29. Audra Le Beau said:

    awesome, Im a student1111

    March 28, 2019
  30. jen472010 said:

    Great artist, and I am sure that the information is well-covered, but the music in the background – the mindless, endlessly repetitive whistling of a simplistic melody – ruined it. Drove me so crazy I couldn't watch the video. Shame, really.

    March 29, 2019
  31. Ho HoHo said:

    thank you very much! you help me a lot!

    March 31, 2019
  32. Rev.AshishRathodSermons said:

    Thanks its really helpful

    April 2, 2019
  33. Super Robot Mab said:

    bro how am i going to right 6 pages of stage 8 alone?

    April 4, 2019
  34. Lem V said:

    Had i seen this before my exam, my answers would have been much better.😉 Anyway, thank you for the short and elucidating explanation. It is really helpful.

    April 11, 2019
  35. Mc Kenna said:

    Great job!!

    April 21, 2019
  36. Rudyson Estanislao said:

    Thank you for creating this 🙂

    April 24, 2019
  37. Miss WOG Daily said:

    Great video! It simplified everything from you very quickly

    April 25, 2019
  38. DBoogie said:

    Taking my Psych 101 Final in a few hours. Thanks for the awesome review!

    May 14, 2019
  39. Liberty GiveMe said:

    This video is FULL OF IT!!!! NEVER ONCE mentioned "Christianity"!!!! Then again, your "Hero" is FREUD!!!! Enough said!

    May 18, 2019
  40. D H said:

    The background music had a negative psychological impact. Who comes up with that shit? It sounds like an attempt at gearing this to younger people and making it sound harmless and dogmatic while it is only one perspective on the process of psychological development…

    May 18, 2019
  41. Nandakumar P said:


    May 24, 2019
  42. Wonder Gal said:

    I love the drawing…. Give a clear picture to the information.

    June 3, 2019
  43. Veronica S said:

    Christ I have a master's degree and can't get a job in the field I studied for.

    June 4, 2019
  44. The Hermitologist said:

    Well I just fell in love with this channel 😁💖✨ all my favourite topics so beautifully illustrated thank youuu🥰🤗💖💖✨

    June 5, 2019
  45. WarriorBoss said:

    0:35 "The key to our development is our mother"


    June 7, 2019
  46. Colin Ellis said:

    It is an interesting video and a good refresher of Erickson. It is interesting how heteronormative this is though. A child may not have a specific parent figure, or have only one parent, or have same-sex parents. There are multiple social constructs through each individual's life. How does this model work in these examples. People can develop positively in these situations.

    June 9, 2019
  47. FDL1992 said:

    I wish I saw this video years ago when I was studying. This makes it all clear instead of the books.

    June 10, 2019
  48. Sharmila Rai said:


    June 11, 2019
  49. Vinay Srisailapu said:

    Wow…super….thank you so much sir😃

    June 12, 2019
  50. Erin Laemmle said:

    As little as $600 dollars!!😂🤣😂What world do you live in?

    June 13, 2019
  51. Daniel Hebard said:

    So you're saying if I have a son who's weird and I don't approve of his behavior, he'll become a communist?

    June 21, 2019
  52. Joshua Miguel said:

    Hi 7 Carnation! From CCBHS

    June 24, 2019
  53. Armenias Thunk said:

    I used to like Erickson, but then I experienced my life, and I found that his theories left a lot lacking in terms of maturation rates and the individual's experience with random events which may be detrimental to his physical and or emotional competency. It's not enough to say people will just mature in a general straight-forward way. That's fine for a society at its crest or in times of slow advancement or decline, but it hardly holds true in a society changing so rapidly technologically and culturally as our is today. That aside, certainly an individual's ability to mature at a young age is independent of the date on his birth certificate. Erickson never addresses as far as I know what is to be done with the individual child who is left to experience important situations on his own while his parents are unable to perceive that the child is not advancing in an emotionally cogent pattern, particularly in an environment which has fervent interaction as opposed to the parochial, pastoral settings within which Erickson appears to place the serene development of a child. This may be the setting for a particular few, but it is far removed from the vast experience of most individuals born in the last 50 years. Sardonic inferences aside, are we to assume no one has grown up sane since the late 60's? This is hardly the case.

    June 27, 2019
  54. Saiful Nadzmi said:

    Use this mnenomic:

    July 5, 2019
  55. Ash Ley said:

    I am a visual learning, so this is helping.

    July 8, 2019
  56. د.أديب البغدادي said:


    July 9, 2019
  57. OMGshinyobject said:

    Thankyou for this and great art!

    July 11, 2019
  58. Seabelo Motivator Educator said:

    Reflection: https://youtu.be/tfVCOv2P-4c

    July 16, 2019
  59. Lil Cupertino said:

    This vid is really nicely animated but the massive assumptions of what goes on inside the heads of infants is quite strange. People stop being people when you abstract them away like this.

    July 16, 2019
  60. exo-l nctzen said:

    Appreciation to the artist

    July 17, 2019
  61. kim andrew said:

    im 30 and i got all the negative traits, how do i compensate,,,, please help

    July 19, 2019
  62. Cat family said:

    Your video helped me pass a unit in psychology. Thank you

    July 20, 2019
  63. Qwerty Plm said:

    Why is it ok to have communist murderers as a role model?

    July 22, 2019
  64. ugh lens said:

    Thank you for this

    July 25, 2019
  65. Kennedy Ralocke said:

    don't worry… ya

    July 26, 2019
  66. John Brill said:

    Why did you let this video depict Che Guevara (depicted on teenagers wall)? He's not a healthy symbol of rebellion. That fellow was a mass rapist and mass murder. You could say that he was a little Hitler.


    July 27, 2019
  67. Ubayd Ar'rhman said:

    I'm sorry but spreading it out over the course of life like this is just plain madness.
    The basis of this idea is quite unclear as well. It isn't supported by jungian analytical psychology or freudian psychoanalysis yet it still talks for unconsciousness in a pretty subtle manner.
    This could simply be categorised as philosophical or psychic not scientific.

    August 9, 2019
  68. Maldoror2112 said:

    I mostly identify with the latter result in each stage. I was waiting for "regret" to show up, but I suppose "despair" fills that role well enough.

    August 13, 2019
  69. Rat King said:

    There is 5 stage

    Baby Child. Teenagers. Adult Elders.

    August 15, 2019
  70. Joy Gildore said:

    I am so tired of reading so I went to youtube for help. I have exams later on my major subject, the developmental psychology. Thank you, it helps a lot 💛✊

    August 16, 2019
  71. Naziya Mirza said:

    very nice…way..

    August 16, 2019
  72. Mark said:

    Question: what had become for those whom suffer from inferiority in stage 4? are they the one who commit suicide / school shooting if from US?

    August 26, 2019
  73. Jeeban Behera said:

    Life is mysterious

    August 26, 2019
  74. Uani P said:

    Yooo, I didn't get any of what I needed thru age 19 and that's what tainted the rest of my growth until I picked myself up and got myself together starting at age 27.

    August 27, 2019
  75. UHFStation1 said:

    Wow, I am approaching 40. Not content at all. No energy. My creativity is drained. Feels like all choices need to be practical.

    September 9, 2019
  76. Alyssa Marie Barbac said:

    Most of the videos in Sprouts are in my course outline!! This is very helpful with my studies and this is easier to comprehend than my classmates' reports.

    September 17, 2019
  77. Christopher Hayles said:

    Can someone tell Eric Erickson that they are enough negative mouthpiece about trump he doesn’t have to add to it

    September 25, 2019
  78. Brazilball GamerZ said:

    Im 7 years old

    October 1, 2019
  79. Carmen DeAngelo said:

    this guy had a terrible life

    October 6, 2019
  80. Roxy Wingstone said:

    Haha too bad my mom sucked

    October 9, 2019
  81. Marsha Creary said:

    How does this theory influence attachment styles?

    October 13, 2019
  82. AFIF ISA said:

    big thank's for this video. very helpfull for my study

    October 13, 2019
  83. klaus oliveira said:

    Please, Every one must read The Word Needs a Father – That's fantastic book!

    October 18, 2019
  84. Carrie Guan said:

    The age division is different from that on the book.

    October 25, 2019
  85. Vince Morcilla said:

    You saved me form my exam
    You are holy

    October 28, 2019
  86. Mr Cred said:

    I'm in an identity crisis. lol

    October 29, 2019
  87. B-Town Klown said:

    Honestly I loved this vid. Great thoughts! God bless! Also peeps hit my short vid up too thx! WOMEN/ EQUALITY Superapayaseria https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aYCBdZLCDBQ

    October 31, 2019
  88. B-Town Klown said:

    The timing may vary, love actually starts way earlier than young adulthood though, that is one thing I have to disagree with. But thx anyway! Also peeps hit my short vid up too thx! WOMEN/ EQUALITY https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aYCBdZLCDBQ

    October 31, 2019
  89. Vanessa Trammell said:

    I'm in my late forties. I'm number 8.

    November 1, 2019
  90. Vanessa Trammell said:

    Number 8 with no grandkids.

    November 1, 2019
  91. Shiro Shiro said:

    I'm 15 y.o. I feel so old. Like my life is almost over

    November 2, 2019
  92. S S said:


    November 5, 2019
  93. Joyce Le said:

    Who else realized that their experience up until this point in their life has been through encounters of the negative end of each stage?

    November 7, 2019
  94. annette norris said:

    Thank you

    November 8, 2019
  95. Yasser Hisham said:

    I'm 29 but still stuck at stage 1.

    November 9, 2019
  96. aidan o brien said:

    Im i stage 7 and i can relate to all of it up to this point, my parents really got it all wrong..at d moment i im in d middle of therapy and trying to fix the rest of my life and become a better person and not be judgemental all of the time…iv diagnosed with bpd but im getting better everyday healing a young child from my past…great video 👍🏻👍🏻

    November 10, 2019
  97. da7ana said:

    What app did u use to make this video? Btw, I love your video..It's simple and easy to understand..

    November 12, 2019
  98. Mbc23 FR said:


    November 16, 2019
  99. venkatesh venkat said:

    Thank you very much

    November 19, 2019
  100. Ige Olasoji said:

    2:30, why is this 😂

    November 27, 2019

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